The present monumental parish church, opened in February 1817, is the fourth known parish church building to serve the parish.
The first, established sometime after 1086, was dedicated to St John the Evangelist and was the parish church of the manors of Tyburn and Lisson (Lillestone);it stood on what is now Oxford Street on a site presently occupied by Debenham's Department Store.
“The Church of Marybone (or Tybourn, as it was then called), was appropriated in the reign of King John (1), by William de Sancta Maria (2), Bishop of London, to the priory of St Laurence de Blakemore, in Essex, with the reservation of a competent maintenance for a Vicar, whereby it seems to have been then made presentative of a Vicar, though it became afterwards a Donative or Curacy, in the disposal of the aforesaid Priory; the said approbation was confirmed by Roger Niger (3) in the 7th year of his consecration, and also about the same time by the Dean and Chapter of St Paul’s, Godfrey de Lucy being the Dean.”*
* A Topographical and Historical Account of the Parish of St-Mary-le-Bone: Comprising a Copious Description of its Public Buildings, Antiquities, Schools, Charitable Endowments, Sources of Public Amusement, & c. with Biographical Notices of Eminent Persons by J. Smith, 1833 - Marylebone (London)
(1) 1199 – 1216 Reign of King John
(2) 1199 – 1221 William de Sancta Maria, Bishop of London
(3) 1229 – 1241 Roger Niger, Bishop of London (7th year of consecration 1235)
By 1400, St John's had fallen into disrepair and was demolished; a new parish church was built nearer to Tyburn Manor House. The site of this parish church and its sucessor is now the Old Church Memorial Garden at the north end of Marylebone High Street.
St Mary the Virgin (Mary of the Bourne) 1400 St Marylebone 1760 - 1949
The great Elizabethan philosopher Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was married there in 1606. The interior of the church was accurately portrayed by the artist Hogarth (1697--1764) in the marriage scene from his famous series "The Rake's Progress" (1735).
The original of the pew panel depicted in that picture can be seen at the back of the church in the north west corner.
For enquiries on the history of St Marylebone Parish Church or genealogy, please contact our Parish Office who will try to assist
Short History of the church in other languages
Parish boundary stone of 1821 in Regent's Park
The Ancient Manors of Lillestone and Tyburn
From ancient times, the Parish that has, since the 1400s, been known as Marylebone, has comprised the two manors of Tyburn and Lillestone. Both are recorded in Domesdsay (1086).
Both are mentioned as small, but relatively wealthy, communities.
Domesday entry for Lisson
Total population: 8 households (quite small).
Total tax assessed: 5 geld units (quite large).
Taxable units: Taxable value 5 gelds units. Payments of 0.01 meadow, pasture, woodland.
Value: Value to lord in 1066 £2. Value to lord in 1086 £3. Value to lord c. 1070 £3.
Households: 4 villagers. 1 slave. 3 cottagers.
Ploughland: 3 ploughlands (land for). 2 lord's plough teams. 1 men's plough teams.
Other resources: 4.5 lord's lands. Meadow 1 ploughs. Woodland 100 pigs.
Lord in 1066: Edward son of Swein.
Overlord in 1066: King Edward.
Lord in 1086: Edeva (wife of Edward son of Swein).
Tenant-in-chief in 1086: Edeva (wife of Edward son of Swein).
Domesday entry for Tyburn
Total population: 8 households (quite small).
Total tax assessed: 5 geld units (quite large).
Taxable units: Taxable value 5 gelds units. Payments of 0.16 meadow, pasture, woodland.
Value: Value to lord in 1066 £5. Value to lord in 1086 £2.6. Value to lord c. 1070 £2.6.
Households: 3 villagers. 2 smallholders. 3 cottagers.
Ploughland: 3 ploughlands (land for). 1 lord's plough teams. 2 men's plough teams.
Other resources: 2.0 lord's lands. Woodland 50 pigs.
Lord in 1066: Abbey of St Mary, Barking
Lord in 1086: Abbey of St Mary, Barking
Tenant-in-chief in 1086: Abbey of St Mary, Barking
The Abbey of St Mary, Barking
Barking emerged as one of the most important towns in the country with the founding of the Abbey in A.D. 666. The Abbey was one of two monasteries founded by Erkenwald, Bishop of London, one for himself in Chertsey (Ceortesei), and one for his sister Saint Ethelburga in Barking, where she was installed as the first Abbess, the new monastery was dedicated to St. Mary, and quickly endowed by the Christian East Saxon princes with land and property, most of which was to become the Manor of Barking, with boundaries the same as those surrounding the former municipal boroughs of Barking, Ilford and Dagenham. This, the oldest estate in Essex, remained a viable entity until the railway brought London rolling eastwards. Erkenwald's strong Romanising influence in the See of London was felt for centuries after his death and inspired a flourishing growth in the community at Barking.
The first Abbey was a missionary centre and was destroyed by the Vikings in 870. All that remains of the first Barking Abbey is a broken Saxon Cross. Equally obscure is the restoration of monastic life after King Alfred's son, Edward the Elder, had driven the Danes out of western Essex in the early 10th century: the first record is of property bequeathed to the Abbey in 951.
The original Barking foundation was a double (though not mixed) monastery of both men and women under an Abbess, not unusual at that time. Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, disapproved, but it was left to Archbishop Dunstan 300 years later to introduce reforms making Barking a strict Benedictine nunnery, the greatest in the country and the only early Saxon monastic foundation in Essex to survive until the Dissolution.
One hundred years later the Abbey was re-founded as a Royal foundation. This allowed the King to nominate each new abbess on the death of the old. Under royal patronage, queens, princesses and members of the nobility all became abbesses. The Abbey became a suitable place for members of the royal family to stay, and in 1066 the first Norman King, William I spent his first New Year since the Conquest here. While staying here he confirmed the Abbey in all its possessions and received the submission of the northern Earls: Edwin of Mercia, and his brother Morcar of Northumbria.
At the time of the Domesday survey in 1086 the Abbey's possessions were widespread. In addition to the titular Manor of Barking, lands and property were owned in other parts of Essex, Middlesex, Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire and Surrey; twenty-eight houses and half a church (All Hallows by-the-Tower) were owned in London.
The Abbess of Barking enjoyed precedence over all other abbesses, ranking as a baron ex-officio. But the king claimed his due: with the office of abbess in his gift the king was apt to use his powers to appoint his wife or daughter abbess when a vacancy occurred. Henry I's Queen, Maud, was Abbess for some years before her death in 1118, and her niece, also Maud or Matilda, wife of Stephen, was Abbess for a time after 1136. Henry II appointed his daughter, another Maud, in 1175 after the death of Mary Socket, whom he had been persuaded to appoint to the office after her brother's martyrdom.
King John's surrender to the Pope in 1213 brought about a change of procedure. After some skirmishing the principle was re-established that the nuns should elect their own abbess, who would then be granted (often tardy) royal recognition. Thus John's own daughter, yet another Maudor Matilda, was elected Abbess in 1247 and afterwards received the assent of her half-brother, Henry III.
This did not stop the King from delaying confirmation of an election while arrogating to himself the Abbey income. The Abbey was obliged to provide board and lodging for sundry royal servants and hangers on, aristocratic invalids, and political prisoners and hostages.
Among the latter was Robert the Bruce's second wife, Elizabeth, who after her husband's defeat at Dairy in 1306 was detained at Barking with other Scots prisoners until Mar 1314, when she was sent to Rochester Castle for greater security during the preparations for the invasion of Scotland, ending with Bruce's victory at Bannock-burn on 24 June. Catherine Sutton was Abbess of Barking (fl. 1363-76). And also Anne Segrave (d. c. 1377), daughter of Lord Seagrave and grand-daughter of Thomas Plantagenet of Brotherton, who was succeeded by her first cousin, Matilda Montagu (b. 1350 - d. 1394), daughter of Edward, 3rd Baron Montague.
The following century the sons of Catherine of Valois and Owen Tudor, Edmund (later Earl of Richmond and father of Henry VII) and Jasper (later Earl of Pembroke and Duke of Bedford), aged about six and five years respectively in 1436 when their mother retired to Bermondsey Abbey shortly before her death, were placed in the care of the Abbess for about four years until considered old enough for their education to be continued by priests. Such impositions, together with recurrent flooding of Abbey lands and other disasters, dissipated resources.
Consequently in 1302-3 the Abbess, Anne de Vere, was ex-communicated for non-payment of Papal tithes, and in 1319 royal permission was obtained for the felling of 300 forest oaks for the urgent repair of the Abbey church and other dilapidated Abbey buildings. High tides again in 1409, sweeping through or over the river walls, flooded 600 acres of meadow in Dagenham marsh, and destroyed 120 acres of wheat in another marsh. An early 15th-century Ordinale sets out the complete calendar of the Barking liturgy and lays down procedure for all ceremonial occasions. The focus of communal life was the Abbey church, one of the largest in the county. In this century, Barking had Catherine De La Pole, daughter of the second Earl of Suffolk, as one of the Abbess.
Barking escaped the first wave of suppression in 1536, enjoying an annual income of £1,080 gross and £862 12s. 54d. net, well above the £200 minimum required to escape dissolution. But the nuns had no illusions about the ultimate fate of their house and could only angle for time to make the best bargain possible for themselves. Dorothy Barley, the last Abbess, sister of Henry Barley of Albury, was fortunate in having a personal friend in Sir William Petre, the young lawyer from Devonshire making his fortune in the King's service. His sister-in-law was a nun at Barking, and the Abbess herself was godmother to one of his daughters. So when the expected happened it was of great good fortune that the King's Commissioner receiving the deed of surrender from the hands of the Abbess on 14 Nov 1539 was Sir William Petre. The Abbess and thirty nuns assembled for the last time in their chapter house to execute and hand to Dr. Petre the deed of surrender, ostensibly a spontaneous act. Among those who signed away their abbey, church and all their corporate possessions were ladies of such well-established Essex families as Fitzlewes, Mordaunt, Tyrrell, Wentworth, Drury, Sulyard and Kempe. Within a fortnight the nuns were given pensions, graded according to rank and age, and sent home. Dorothy Barley got a pension of £133 13s. 4d., one of the largest awarded to the head of a nunnery (the other was for Elizabeth Zouche, Abbess of Shaftesbury). Nuns like Margery Paston, daughter of Sir William Paston of Norfolk; and Gabrielle Shelton, daughter of Sir John Shelton, returned to their family homes. Demolition of the Abbey buildings began in Jun 1540 and went on for eighteen months. For almost 400 years the Abbey site was used as a quarry and a farm.
The road to Creekmouth was repaired and much of the stone carted to luggers and shipped down the Thames for building the King's new house at Dartford. Lead from the roof went up river to repair the roof of Greenwich Palace. To the King's jewel house went 3,586 ounces of silver plate, mostly gilt, and a beryl-decorated silver gilt monstrance weighing 65 ounces. Cattle, etc., were sold for £182 2s. 10d.
Almost all that remained of the old Abbey buildings was the (still standing) Curfew or Fire Bell Gate (rebuilt about 1460), with its 12th- or early 13th-century stone rood in the upper storey chapel, and the North-East Gate (demolished about 1885). Some Norman masonry from the Abbey seems to have been re-used in the outer north aisle of St. Margaret's parish church.
Early in 1911 an excavation was carried out jointly by the Town Council and the Morant Club under Sir Alfred Clapham. Remains of the walls of the Abbey church were left exposed to view and the lines of the cloister out in 1966, 1971, and from 1984 onwards. In 1910 the ruins of the main Abbey church were excavated and became a small park. However the classic excavations by Clapham failed to find the Saxon remains, so it was a great surprise when recent rescue excavations, just outside the medieval abbey precincts, discovered the workshops of the Saxon Abbey.
There were numerous high quality objects, including this fragment of a bone comb, decorated Saxon-style with the head of a horse. The excavators also found part of the leet of a horizontal mill, and most surprising of all, the foundations of a glass furnace dated to around 900, producing very high quality glass.
Barking Abbey: curfew tower with St Margaret's church in background
It would appear that these were the workshops producing the high quality goods that an abbey would need in a society still dominated by gift exchange.
The Curfew Tower, also known as the Fire Bell Gate, was one of the abbey's three gateways and is the only part of the abbey not in ruins. The original tower was built in 1370, however the current tower was built around 1460. Above the gateway is "The Chapel of the Holy Rood", named for the 12th-century stone rood displayed within it.
The building has been repaired several times. In 1955/56 the chapel was redecorated and the windows repaired. In 2005/06 the tower was extensively repaired at the cost of £130,000. The staircase roof, and the covering of the main roof were replaced, and the tower's masonry was re-pointed, with the irreparably damaged stone replaced. Inside the chapel was again redecorated.
The tower is Grade-II* Listed, and is featured on the coat of arms of the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham.
The Ecclesiastical Identity of St Marylebone
We do not know with any certainty when the first permanent place of Christian worship was established in what is now St Marylebone. We do know[i] that ‘the priory of Tybourn’ was appropriated during the reign of King John (reigned from 1199 until 1216) by William de Sancta Maria, also known as William de St Mariæ Ecclesiâ, formerly a Prebendary of St Paul's, London. Elected after 7 December 1198 and consecrated on 23 May 1199, William resigned as Bishop of London on 25 or 26 January 1221 and died on 24 or 27 March 1224.
As there is no record of an ecclesiastical structure in Domesday (1086), we can be fairly certain that the ecclesiastical identity of what was to become first the parish of St John and later St Marylebone was established at some point after 1086. The priory must have been well established and endowed at the time of its appropriation, and so a date of founding in the early 12th century could be surmised.
[i] Newcourt, Repertorium, i, 695, 834; ii, 63, 405 quoted in A History of the County of Essex: Volume 2. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1907.
The Parish Church in 1817